Introduction to polarization

by: Ramon
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Дата: 01.12.21 Time: 17:14
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Polarization:

The study of the polarization phenomenon is a very important part of many optical applications. Optical design frequently keeps the main focus on the intensity and wavelength of the light and neglects the polarization. The light has a highly important property of the polarization that even affects the optical system that is not meant to measure it. The focus of the laser beam gets affected by the polarization of the light, the cut-off wavelength of the filter, and can be important for preventing unwanted back reflections. Polarization is used for a wide range of applications such as pharmaceutical ingredient analysis, stress analysis in glass or plastic, and biology microscopy. The material to varying degrees can be used to absorb the light of different polarization, an essential property for LCD screens, 3D movies, and glare-reducing sunglasses.

Light is a type of electromagnetic wave, and the electric field present in this wave shows a motion of oscillation perpendicular to the direction of propagation. If the direction of this electric field fluctuates randomly in time then the light is said to be unpolarized. There are many common sources of light such as halogen lighting, incandescent bulbs that produce unpolarized light, sunlight, and LED spotlights. If the direction of the electric field of light is well defined then it is called polarized light. Laser is the most common source of polarized light.

On the basis of the orientation of the electric field, the polarized light has been divided into three types of polarization:

Circular polarization-

the electric field basically consists of two linear components that are basically perpendicular to each other, they are equal in magnitude and there is a phase difference of π/2. The resulting electric field rotates in a circle around the direction of propagation and, depending on the direction of rotation, is called circularly polarized light, either left- or right-handed. The mirrors used in beam splitters including boulder and coated optical mirrors and they are also used for polarization in optics.

Linear polarization-

The electric field present in the light is fixed to a single plane along the direction of propagation.

Elliptical polarization-

The electric field present in the light shows an ellipse. It is considered to be one of the most commonly used methods for the description of polarized light, and circularly and linearly polarized light can be viewed as special cases of elliptically polarized light. This happens when two linear components combine with having different amplitudes and/or having a phase different, not equal to π/2.

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Ramon


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